Domain Name Related Terms

Domain Name

An identification label that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority, or control in the Internet, base on the DNS (Domain Name System). A domain name acts as an easily recognizable name that identifies a numerical address on the Internet. Read more on Wikipedia

Name Resolution

The task of converting domain names into numerical IP addresses in order for a user to connect to another computer. Source: Wikipedia

ICANN (The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers)

ICANN is a global organization charged with overseeing and regulating the Internet. gTLDs are approved by ICANN and can only be sold by entities that have ICANN approval, or reselling outlets of such entities. Source: Wikipedia


An entity which runs a Top-Level Domains and manages a master database of all domain registrations within that TLD. Country TLDs are generally run by government departments or co-operatives of Internet service providers, or non-profit organizations. The Registry is responsible for implementing policy and controls for domain name allocation. Source: Wikipedia


The end user or customer who purchases a domain name.


A domain name registrar is an organization or commercial entity, accredited by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) or by a national country code top-level domain (ccTLD) authority, to manage the reservation of Internet domain names in accordance with the guidelines of the designated domain name registries and offer such services to the public. Source: Wikipedia

Top-level Domain (TLD)

The highest level in the DNS (Domain Name System). A TLD is the portion to the right side of the “.” For example, the top level in the domain “” is “jp”, referring to the country code for Japan. Source: Wikipedia

ccTLD (Country Code Top-level Domain ccTLD

A two-letter top level domain specific to a particular country, and in some cases a sovereign state or dependent territory. The ccTLD for Japan is “.jp”, for Canada it is “.ca”, for the United States it is “us”. According to ICANN over 1.1 million ccTLDs had been registered as of September 2009. In October of 2009, ICANN’s Board passed a resolution to start accepting applications for internationalized ccTLDs.

Generic Top-level Domain

The most widely known category of TLDs. gTLDs are maintained by ICANN, and all gTLD operators are approved by ICANN. Examples of gTLDs are “.com””.net” “.org” etc., Currently there are 21 gTLDs in existence.

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange Characters)

A character-encoding scheme based the ordering of the English alphabet and represent text in electronic devices that use text.

Internationalized Domain Name

A domain name that contains labeling in language-specific script such as Japanese Kanji, Hiragana, or Katakana.

Uniform Domain-Name Dispute Resolution Policy

A policy developed by ICANN and later implemented in 1999 to aid in the resolution of disputes regarding domain name registrations. The policy is valid for all gTLDs and some ccTLDs as well.

WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization)

One of 16 specialized agencies of the United Nations. WIPO is one of four ICANN Approved UDRP (Uniform Domain-Name Dispute) providers. In 2009 WIPO processed decisions on over 2,100 dispute cases and nearly 17,000 cases since beginning UDRP hearings in 1999.


A tool used to determine the registrant of a domain name or IP address. Looking up a domain name in a Whois database generally reveals who the registrant is, who the administrative contact is, and who the technical contact is.
Visit Gonbei Registrar’s Whois:

Root Server

A name server under the root zone which translates domain names to IP addresses. 13 Root Servers exist worldwide.

EPP (Extensible Provisioning Protocol)

A flexible protocol designed for allocating objects within registries over the Internet.


A necessary component to make files available to Internet users.

Auth Code

A key or code (authorization code) provided by gTLD registries and some ccTLD registries used as a protection mechanism to ensure that only the rightful domain owner can control the transfer of the domain registration.

DNSSEC (Domain Name System Security Extensions)

A suite of IETF specifications for securing certain kinds of information provided by the Domain Name System (DNS) as used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It is a set of extensions to DNS which provide to DNS clients (resolvers) origin authentication of DNS data, data integrity, authenticated denial of existence.

Sunrise Period

The term Sunrise Period refers to the period of time at the launch of a new top-level domain or second-level domain during which owners of trademarks may register a domain name containing the owned mark.
Numerous domains have launched or plan to launch with a sunrise period, including .info, .mobi, .pk, and .eu.

Landrush Period

Similar to the Sunrise Period, the Land Rush Period is specific time period in which registrants can purchase premium domain names. There are no restrictions on who can purchase domain names in this period.

Go Live

The general registration period opened after the end of the Sunrise and Land Rush Periods.

OT&E (Operational & Testing Environment)

A testing environment on a registry sever that that imitates a real registry environment. The OT&E is necessary for registrars who want to connect to a registry to perform registrations over EPP.


The DNS consists of a single zone known as the Root Zone. The Root Zone consists of all TLD Zones. A domain name registered under the ccTLD for Japan, “.jp” is registered under the “‘.jp'” zone.”

Zone File

A text file that describes a portion of the domain name system (DNS) called a DNS zone. A zone contains information that defines mappings between domain names and IP addresses and other resources, organized in form of resource records (RR).

ICANN Related Terms

ALAC (At-Large Advisory Committee

An advisory committee to ICANN, the organization that administers the Internet’s Domain Name System and addressing system. Its mission is to act as an advocate for the interests and viewpoints of the global individual users of the Internet.

ccNSO (Country Code Names Supporting Organization)

The policy-development body for a narrow range of global issues regarding country code top-level domains (ccTLD) within the ICANN structure established under the bylaws of ICANN.

NomCom (Nominating Committee)

A group within ICANN that is responsible for selecting all ICANN Directors (with the exception of the President and those selected by the various ICANN Supporting Organizations.

GAC (Governmental Advisory Committee)

An ICANN body made up of government leaders from around the world (national governments, multi-national governmental organizations and treaty organizations, and distinct economies) to advise ICANN on the various concerns that local governments have with Internet related policies.

GNSO (Generic Names Supporting Organization)

An ICANN Body of six constituencies: the Commercial and Business constituency, the gTLD Registry constituency, the ISP constituency, the non-commercial constituency, the registrar’s constituency, and the IP constituency.

SSAC (Security and Stability Advisory Committee

An ICANN body formed to to advise on the security and stability of the Internet’s naming and address allocation systems.

New gTLD Application Related Terms

DAG Draft Applicant Guidebook

DAG is short for Draft Applicant Guidebook. The term is used to refer to ICANNs official Draft Request for Proposals, also known as the Draft Applicant Guidebook. This guide is the official guidelines and rules for applying for a New gTLD.

Explanatory Memorandum

Additional notes to created by ICANN to further explain procedures and rule defined in the Draft Applicant Guidebook.

Sword Tool

An Algorithm that ICANN will use to calculate the similarity of existing TLD strings or ICANN reserved words. The algorithm can be found at the following URL:

Thick Whois

One Whois server stores the complete WHOIS information from all the registrars for the particular set of data (so that one WHOIS server can respond with WHOIS information on all domains in a zone.) The thick model usually ensures consistent data and slightly faster lookups (since only one WHOIS server needs to be contacted). If a registrar goes out of business, a thick registry contains all important information (if the registrant entered correct data, and privacy features were not used to obscure the data) and registration information can be retained.

Thin Whois

One WHOIS server stores only the name of the WHOIS server of the registrar of a domain, which in turn has the full details on the data being looked up (such as the .com WHOIS servers, which refer the WHOIS query to the registrar where the domain was registered).

TAS (Top-Level-Domain Application System)

TAS refers to the online interface which ICANN proposes to implement for the processing of New TLD Applications.

Administrative Completeness Check

A preliminary check of the applications in order do confirm that the applicant has correctly filled out the application. The Administrative Completeness Check ensures that:

  • All mandatory questions have been answered
  • All required supporting documentation has been provided
  • The evaluation fee has been received by ICANN

Public comments

A period in in the early stages of the Application process which allows the public to bring relevant information and attention to the application examiners. The Public Comment Period will begin shortly after ICANN has publicly published the applications received for a particular application round.

Objection Filing

A period in of the New gTLD Application Process in which parties can file an objection toward a particular application on the following four grounds:

  • String Confusion
  • Legal Rights
  • Morality and Public order
  • Community Objection

Initial Evaluation (IE)

The first evaluation process for a New gTLD Application. The Initial Evaluation consists of a review of the applied-for string, the applicants qualifications, and applicants proposed registry services.

Extended Evaluation

An evaluation of the application which can be requested by an applicant who does not pass the Initial Evaluation. An applicant must be deemed eligible for an Extended Evaluation by ICANN.

Dispute Resolution

Refers to a process which applies to applicants whose applications are the subject of a formal objection.

String Contention

When more than one qualified application is for the same or a similar gTLD string, the applicants are said to be in String Contention.

Transition to Delegation

The process after an applicant has successfully cleared the initial evaluation, and other applicable stages. During this process, the applicant is required to complete a few additional steps such as the execution of the registry agreement with ICANN and pass all pre-delegation tests.

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